You can find your fuel pump by following the gas line from the tank, it will be before the carbs. Some bikes have vacuum operated fuel pumps. For these, make sure all the lines are connected and tight at both ends.
Most fuel pump bikes are electric. It is a very simple device, with two or more wires going into it. If you attach these two wires to the positive and negative of your battery, the fuel pump should jump to life and spray gas all over the place. They use the gas as a lubricant and a coolant for the pump, so they are usually much louder when they are dry of gas.
So, that is how you can test your fuel pump. There may also be a fuel pump relay on your bike, some are hardwired to pump all the time. If you are experiencing a fuel pump failure of this kind, there are two things you can do.
First, you can hardwire the fuel pump as described above. Wire it to a hot wire on your bike, not to the battery, so it will shut off when you shut the bike off. Do a thorough inspection to make sure you aren't flooding the carbs. Also, you can bypass the pump completely, and run your tank directly to your carbs. This should be enough to get you home, but you might have some fuel starvation problems, so keep the RPMs down if you can.
Remember that when you go to diagnose your bike in the future, if the pump is not running, generally it is stopping fuel flow.
Here is a video demonstrating how to test the fuel pump: